N E B K C
PUG & EXOTIC PUG
Last update: 20.05.2020
CATEGORY: brachycephalic molossoid
UTILIZATION: Companion, Toy dog
ACTIVITY LEVEL: Low
FEMALES: 25-36 cm, 10-14 inches
MALES: 25-36 cm, 10-14 inches
The goals and purposes of this breed standard include: to furnish guidelines for breeders who wish to maintain the quality of their breed and to improve it. Any departure from the following should be considered a fault, and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
The health of the pug has been at the heart of debates in recent years and the Netherlands have gone so far as to prohibit by a law of 2014 the reproduction of brachycephalic dogs, whose noses would be below 1/3 of the length of the skull, measured from the occiput to the tip of the nose. Some breeders have gone as far to cross Pug x Shiba Inu or Pug x Staffordshire Bull Terrier or Pug x Jack Russell to lengthen the nose in a "Retro Pug" program. Our approach will rather be to ask our breeders for a veterinary examination of the respiratory tract, eyes and other health parameters. A selection can be achieved to have less exaggerated subjects with just a little bit more nose length & neck length who will be perfect happy companions. We encourage to produce a healthier Pug, not overdone, without promoting outcrosses.
2 HISTORICAL SUMMARY
Pugs originated in China, dating back to the Han dynasty (B.C. 206 to A.D. 200). Some historians believe they are related to the Tibetan Mastiff. They were prized by the Emperors of China and lived in luxurious accommodations, sometimes even being guarded by soldiers. Pugs are one of three types of short-nosed dogs that are known to have been bred by the Chinese: the Lion dog, the Pekingese, and the Lo-sze, which was the ancient Pug. Some think that the famous "Foo Dogs" of China are representations of the ancient Pug. Evidence of Pug-like dogs has been found in ancient Tibet and Japan. In the latter 1500s and early 1600s, China began trading with European countries. Reportedly, the first Pugs brought to Europe came with the Dutch traders, who named the breed Mopshond, a name still used today. Pugs quickly became favorites of royal households throughout Europe, and even played a role in the history of many of these families. In Holland, the Pug became the official dog of the House of Orange after a Pug reportedly saved the life of William, Prince of Orange, by giving him a warning that the Spaniards were approaching in 1572. When William of Orange (later called William III) went to England in 1688 with his wife, Mary II, to take the throne from James II, they brought their Pugs with them. It is known that black pugs existed in the 1700s because the famous artist, William Hogarth, was a Pug enthusiast. He portrayed a black Pug and many others in his famous paintings. In 1785, Goya also portrayed Pugs in his paintings. As the Pug's popularity spread throughout Europe, it was often known by different names in different countries. In France, it was called Carlin; in Spain Dogullo; in Germany Mops; and in Italy, Caganlino. Marie Antoinette had a Pug named Mops before she married Louis XVI at the age of 15. Another famous Frenchwoman, Josephine Bonaparte, had a Pug named Fortune. Before she married Napoleon Bonaparte, she was confined at Les Carmes prison. Since her beloved Pug was the only "visitor" she was allowed, she would conceal messages in his collar to take to her family. In the early 1800s, Pugs were standardized as a breed with two lines becoming dominant in England. One line was called the Morrison line and, reportedly, was founded upon the royal dogs of Queen Charlotte, wife of George III. The other line was developed by Lord and Lady Willoughby d'Eresby, and was founded on dogs imported from Russia or Hungary. Pugs were first exhibited in England in 1861. The studbook began in 1871 with 66 Pugs in the first volume. Meanwhile, in China, Pugs continued to be bred by the royal families. When the British overran the Chinese Imperial Palace in 1860, they discovered several Pugs, and brought some of the little dogs back to England with them. Two Pugs named Lamb and Moss were brought to England. These two "pure" Chinese lines were bred and produced Click. He was an outstanding dog and was bred many times to dogs of both the Willoughby and Morrison lines. Click is credited with making Pugs a better breed overall and shaping the modern Pug as we know it today. Pugs became very popular during the Victorian era and were featured in many paintings, postcards, and figurines of the period. Often, they were depicted wearing wide, decorative collars or large bows around their short, thick necks. Queen Victoria had many Pugs, and also bred them. The queen preferred apricot-fawn Pugs, whereas another Pug fancier, Lady Brassey, made black Pugs fashionable after she brought some back from China in 1886.
3 GENERAL APPEARANCE:
Symmetry and general appearance are decidedly square and cobby. A lean, leggy Pug and a dog with short legs and a long body are equally objectionable
FAULTS: Any fault that spoils the general harmony
SERIOUS FAULTS: overdone characteristics, obesity
Don't expect a Pug to hunt, guard or retrieve. Pugs were bred to be companions, and that's exactly what they do best. The Pug craves affection, and your lap, and is very unhappy if his devotion isn't reciprocated.
FAULTS A dog who appears hyperactive in the ring, nervous
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS: overly shy or aggressive. Human aggression
a) Shape & Proportions: The head is rather large, massive, round - not apple-headed, with no indentation of the skull.
b) Front view: The head appears perfectly round, height equal to width
c) Profile view: The head appears short
d) Top view : short head, wrinkled forehead
FAULTS: A head too large or too small, overdone characteristics
a) Setting: wide apart of the skull & high
b) Type: There are two kinds - the "rose" and the "button." Preference is given to the button ears.
c) Size: The ears are thin, small, soft, like black velvet.
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS unilateral or bilateral deafness.
7 FOREHEAD Heavily wrinkled
8 MEDIAN FURROW -
9 STOP: wrinkle roll
FAUTLS: Lack of wrinkles, Any departure of the standard
10 EYE BRIDGE, EYE BROWS: well defined
11 EYES The eyes are dark in color, very large, bold and prominent, globular in shape, soft and solicitous in expression, very lustrous, and, when excited, full of fire.
a) Setting : wide apart
b) Shape: globular
c) Size: rather large
d) Colors: dark in color (or adapted to coat color if Exotic)
FAULTS Odd eye. eyes set to narrow
SERIOUS FAULT Bulging eyes
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS Severely bulging eyes, strabismus, asymmetric eyes, cherry eye, albinism red eyes, congenital blindness.
12 EYE RIMS
The eye rims upper and lower should be tight around the eye with no looseness with good pigment. Color black, or adapted to coat if Exotic Pug.
FAULTS Lack of pigment, tendency to entropion or ectropion, surgically corrected
SERIOUS FAULTS haw (conjonctive tissues) showing.
DISQUALIFYING FAUTLS Severely bulging eyes. Haw showing severely "droopy" eye.
13 CHEEKS The wrinkles are large and deep.
a) Shape & proportion: The muzzle is short, blunt, square, but not upfaced.
The wrinkles are large and deep.
b) Muzzle line, the muzzle is often so short that there is no nose bridge. We do recommand to bred the Pug in order he has a little more nose length (Please refer to the antique picture gallery below), not totally smashed between the eyes.
d) Chin line: not upfaced
FAULTS A muzzle too short or too long.
SERIOUS FAULT Exaggerated rope, overlaping the nose or touching the cornea.
DISQUALIFYING FAUTLS Respiratory distress
a) Type: semi-pendulous
b) color: black or adapted to coat color if Exotic
FAULTS Any departure of the standard, lack of pigment.
a) size & proportion: medium in size with open nostrils
b) color: black or adapted to coat color if Exotic
FAULTS A butterfly nose (unpigmented spots) is judged following the missing amount of pigment (tolerated in merle gene dogs), pinched nostrils, any sign of respiratory distress.
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS severely pinched nostrils and severe respiratory distress (from the nares or the soft palate) A dudley nose (entirely pigmentless), except for Exotic Pink.
The lower jaw is well developed wide, deep and set straight and must fit perfectly into the upper jaws.
FAULTS Offset jaws or slightly wry jaws, tongue hanging out with closed mouth
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS Severely wry jaws
18 BITE (OCCLUSION)
Type: The muzzle is short, blunt, square, but not upfaced. Bite - A Pug's bite should be very slightly undershot.
Full set of 22 white and large teeth on the lover maxillary, 20 to 22 on the upper maxillary. 6 incisors are set in a straight row between the 2 canines set wide apart, behind the canines are the premolars 4 on each side at the lower and upper maxillary, followed by 3 molars each side on the lower maxillary and 2 molars each side on the upper maxillary.
Crooked teeth, missing teeth, supernumerary teeth, small teeth
NOTE: Broken tooth are not penalized in a show ring or for confirmation. For extracted teeth, the owner must provide a vet certificate to avoid to have them judged missing.
20 NECK : The neck is slightly arched. It is strong, thick, and with enough length to carry the head proudly. The skin has a loose fit with a ruff around the shoulders and neck
FAULTS A too short neck
21 THORAT slightly loose skin
FAULTS too much skin or large dewlap
22 ENTIRE DOG BODY
23 MUSCLES Conditioning must be good with no tendency to over or underweight.
a) FRONT VIEW:
24 CHEST: The chest is rather wide and high.
The fore chest is well rounded and out pass the point of the well sloped shoulder seen from profile.
FAULTS Any depature of the standard
b) PROFILE VIEW:
25 Back: The body is short, cobby & high
26 TOPLINE : The short back is level from the withers to the high tail set, There is some loose skin over the withers.
c) TOP VIEW:
d) REAR VIEW:
27 RIB CAGE well ribbed up and high
28 LOINS - BELLY LINE: the underline has not obvious tuckup
FAULTS Pendulous line "obesity" or tucked up
FAULTS BODY: Body too long
29 HIPS are strong and in harmony to the shoulder width
30 FORELEGS The legs are very strong, straight, of moderate length, and are set well under.
31 SHOULDERS The shoulders are well sloped
32 ELBOWS are close to the body
33 FRONT PASTERNS (Metacarpus)
FRONT VIEW Short, straight and strong
PROFILE VIEW the pastern that is about half of length of rear pastern and is moderately inclined. A dewclaw is present.
MANDATORY HEALTH TESTS
Pug Dog Encephalitis (PDE)
Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)
BAT - Veterinarian breeding ability test
ONLINE/LIVE CONFIRMATION: 12 Mo
RECOMMENDED HEALTH TESTS
PL, X-RAY HD, VERTEBRAL COLUMN
34 FOREFEET Straight or very slightly turned outwards of medium size and moderately round. Toes compact and thick, well split up, making knuckles prominent and high.
FAULTS Feet toeing out too much our toeing in, loose elbows, incorrect angulation: pasterns, shoulders, bandy legs, barrel front, fiddle front, east/west, pigeon toed
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS splayed feet, flat feet or any other fault if severe.
HINDQUARTERS The strong, powerful hindquarters have perpendicular to the ground. The legs are parallel when viewed from behind. The hindquarters are in balance with the forequarters. The thighs and buttocks are full and muscular. Feet as in front.
35 HINDLEGS Rear view: The legs are parallel when viewed from behind
36 STIFLES moderate bend of stifle and short hocks
37 REAR PASTERNS (Metatarsus) straight and strong with no dewclaw.
38 HINDFEET as in front
FAULTS incorrect angulation at the hocks, bandy legs, cow-hocks, barrel hocks, dewclaw at rear
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS any fault that is severe
39 TAIL The tail is curled as tightly as possible over the hip. The double curl is perfection.
40 MOVEMENT Viewed from the front, the forelegs should be carried well forward, showing no weakness in the pasterns, the paws landing squarely with the central toes straight ahead. The rear action should be strong and free through hocks and stifles, with no twisting or turning in or out at the joints. The hind legs should follow in line with the front. There is a slight natural convergence of the limbs both fore and aft. A slight roll of the hindquarters typifies the gait which should be free, self-assured, and jaunty.
FAULTS Paddling, sidewinding, Rolling, incoordinated crossing gait, bunny hopping (sign for hip dysplasia), any limping.
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS Any that is severe
Females: cm, Inches at the withers 25-36 cm, 10 to 14 inches tall at the shoulder.
Males : cm, Inches at the withers 25-36 cm, 10 to 14 inches tall at the shoulder.
42 WEIGHT :
Females: kg, Pugs weigh between 6,5-8 kg, 14 and 18 pounds (male and female).
Males: kg, Pugs weigh between 6,5-8 kg, 14 and 18 pounds (male and female).
FAULTS Any departure of the standard
a) Type: The coat is fine, smooth, soft, short and glossy, neither hard nor woolly.
b) Colors: The standard colors are fawn, apricot, silver or black. The fawn color should be decided so as to make the contrast complete between the color and the trace and mask. Markings: The markings are clearly defined. The muzzle or mask, ears, moles on cheeks, thumb mark or diamond on forehead, and the back trace should be as black as possible. The mask should be black. The more intense and well defined it is, the better. The trace is a black line extending from the occiput to the tail.
Black: This should be the most common of Pug colors you can find, though since breeders prefer breeding Fawn Pugs, black ones are greatly outnumbered by them. We say this since the genes which determine black coats are dominant in Pugs. The exact color is S007, giving them a solid black coloration that is simply beautiful. Usually, white markings are present on their chests, but not throughout the body, unless it’s white hairs in their seniority.
Fawn: This is the most common of Pug colors because of breeders. It’s important to note the complexity of this color, which ranges from a light cream coloration to a much darker one. That’s why it’s said that the color has a wide range. Also, those colors often can appear in a single dog at the same time, making different shades within the same coat possible.
Silver-fawn: Another color of Pugs, this is actually a variation of the Fawn color. It has light cream and grayish coloration that’s notably silverish. The color is also called silver.
Apricot: The least common of the accepted colors. Apricot is actually within the range of Fawn, which is why it’s mostly accepted in other breeds as Fawn. The coloring is clearly orangey-tan, also mixed with cream colors that can give Pugs a different color throughout their coats.
It’s important to note that all non-black Pugs should also have a black mask and ears.
Common markings in the different Pug Colors
Pugs can also have makings and patterns. Here are the accepted ones:
Thumbprint or Diamond: This is a little dark spot that can appear in non-black Pug’s foreheads. It is common to see them in Fawn Pugs. They are black or slightly darker hairs, not to be confused with shadows caused by Pug’s wrinkles. Most Pugs (at least 70%) have it, but some don’t. This is a desired trait for shows.
Trace: Another darkened spot or line across Pug’s backs. It can only be seen in non-black Pugs, and it’s a highly desired trait for shows; the darker the better. Most of the Pug champions will have it, and Pugs without it are not part of champion breeding programs.
Smuttiness: This is what happens when light-colored Pugs have an overlay of dark or black hairs on top of a base of their major color. This happens in most Pugs, though to be considered as smuttiness, it has to be a heavy effect on their coats; enough to cause a black or dark hue on top of their coats. This is accepted in shows, but not desired, and seen as a fault.
Masks and black ears: The top of Pug’s ears, as well as their muzzle, should be black. Some Pugs may also have white or lighter colors in their muzzle, and sometimes they appear as they each seniority. This can also be accepted. Also, the definition of “black mask” is wide, so different types of black masks are accepted. All of these markings and patterns of coats are accepted in most shows.
c) Exotic colors: White pugs are not accepted in show rings for the classic standard. Even in 100% champion Pugs bloodlines white markings in paws, chest, and the rest of the body can appear on top of a coat of a different color. White pugs are considered as exotics, they have a pinkish nose. black & tan, blue & tan, silver-fawn, white, brindle, merle, "pink". Pink pugs are not albinos, they are like the Carmello horse, light cream coat and pink nose, lips & eye rims with blue eyes. Chocolate, chocolate & tan, blue, blue & tan.
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS Long, fuzzy or wavy coats, albinismus any color than fawn or black for the classic standard.
e) Grooming: Low maintenance, very easy due to their short hair. Nose fold cleaning is necessary.
44 CLIMATE TOLERANCE
Like all brachycephalic breeds and molosser in general, the Pug must be protected from great heat in summer and also from excessive coldness in winter.
Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding. As dogs are not perfect, the breeder should never double up on health or conformation faults, even if minor and do his utmost to meet the ideal of the standard that is used as guideline.
Breeders and judges have the responsibility to avoid any conditions or exaggerations that are detrimental to the health, welfare, essence and soundness of this breed, and must take the responsibility to see that these are not perpetuated.
46 & TEMPERAMENT & UTILIZATION
This is an even-tempered breed, exhibiting stability, playfulness, great charm,
dignity, and an outgoing, loving disposition. Ideal family dog, companion dog.
47 USUAL HEALTH ISSUES
Pugs are generally healthy, but like all breeds, they're prone to certain health conditions. Not all Pugs will get any or all of these diseases, but it's important to be aware of them if you're considering this breed. If you're buying a puppy, find a good breeder who will show you health clearances for both your puppy's parents. Health clearances prove that a dog has been tested for and cleared of a particular condition. In Pugs, you should expect to see health clearances for hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, hypothyroidism, and von Willebrand's disease; from Auburn University for thrombopathia; and veterinarian certification that eyes are normal. Pug Dog Encephalitis: PDE is a fatal inflammatory brain disease that is unique to Pugs. Medical researchers don't know why Pugs develop this condition; there is no way test for it or to treat it. A diagnosis of PDE can only be made by testing the brain tissue of the dog after it dies. PDE usually affects young dogs, causing them to seizure, circle, become blind, then fall into a coma and die. This can happen in a few days or weeks. Epilepsy: PDE isn't the only thing that can cause Pugs to seizure. They are prone to a condition called idiopathic epilepsy: seizures for no known reason. If your Pug has seizures, take him to your vet to determine what treatment is appropriate. Corneal Ulcers: Because his eyes are so large and prominent, the Pug's eyes can be injured easily or develop ulcers on the cornea (the clear part of the eye). If your Pug squints or the eyes look red and tear excessively, contact your vet immediately. Corneal ulcers usually respond well to medication, but if left untreated, can cause blindness or even rupture the eye. Dry Eye: Keratoconjunctivitis sicca and pigmentary keratitis are two conditions seen in Pugs. They can occur at the same time, or individually. Dry eye is caused when the eyes don't produce enough tears to stay moist. Your vet can perform tests to determine if this is the cause, which can be controlled with medication and special care. Pigmentary keratits is a condition that causes black spots on the cornea, especially in the corner near the nose. If the pigment covers the eye, it can cause blindness. Your vet can prescribe medication that will help keep the eyes moist and dissolve the pigment. Both of these eye conditions require life-long therapy and care. Eye Problems: Because their large eyes bulge, Pugs are prone to a variety of eye problems, including proptosis (the eyeball is dislodged from the eye socket and the eyelid clamps behind it); distichiasis (an abnormal growth of eyelashes on the margin of the eye, resulting in the eyelashes rubbing against the eye); progressive retinal atrophy (a degenerative disease of the retinal visual cells that leads to blindness); and entropion (the eyelid, usually the lower lid, rolls inward, causing the hair on the lid to rub on the eye and irritate it). Allergies: Some Pugs suffer from a variety of allergies, ranging from contact to food allergies. If your Pug is licking at his paws or rubbing his face a great deal, suspect allergy and have him checked by your vet.
Hemi-vertebrae: Short-nosed breeds, such as Pugs, Bulldogs and French Bulldogs, can have misshaped vertebrae. Sometimes, only a few of the vertebrae are affected and the dog is able to live a normal life. Others will stagger and display an uncoordinated, weak gait between 4 and 6 months of age. Some dogs get progressively worse and may even become paralyzed. The cause of the condition is unknown. Surgery can help.
Hip Dysplasia: This malady affects small breeds as well as large breeds, including Pugs. Many factors, including genetics, environment and diet, are thought to contribute to this deformity of the hip joint. Affected Pugs are usually able to lead normal, healthy lives with proper veterinary attention.
Patellar Luxation: The patella is the kneecap. Luxation means dislocation of an anatomical part (as a bone at a joint). Patellar luxation is when the knee joint (often of a hind leg) slides in and out of place, causing pain. This can be crippling, but many dogs lead relatively normal lives with this condition.