N E B K C
UTILIZATION: Companion, sporting, utility
ACTIVITY LEVEL: Medium-high
SIZE: Medium (females cm, males cm)
(Breed abbreviations, check INFO "Inscriptions"
NICK-OR-OTHER NAME: Dobby
ORIGINAL STANDARD: AKC/FCI
Our judges apply the american Doberman standard.
Since the invention of money, one thing has been certain at all times and in all places: The tax collector is never a welcome visitor. In certain precincts of 19th century Germany, the reception was downright hostile. All too aware of this was taxman and dog breeder Louis Dobermann, from the town of Apolda. He hoped to breed an imposing but dependable protector to accompany him on his rounds.
Dobermann’s handiwork was a larger, less refined version of the pinscher that today bears his name (minus an “n,” which was dropped somewhere along the way). Historians mention the Black and Tan Terrier (forerunner of the Manchester Terrier), German Pinscher, Rottweiler, and smooth-coated herding dogs among the components of Dobermann’s new breed.
The “Tax Collector’s Dog” quickly gained an international reputation as a working dog supreme. Dobes have excelled at police and military K-9 duty, as therapy dogs and service dogs for the disabled, as searchers and rescuers, and in competitive dog sports. During World War II, the U.S. Marine Corps Dobermans of the Pacific won the breed great fame. Twenty-five of these loyal “Devil Dogs” died during the battle for Guam.
With their muscular good looks and proud gait, Dobes are consistent winners in the ring. A Dobe named Storm won Westminster’s Best in Show two years running, 1952 and ’53. The Doberman Pinscher came to the AKC in 1908 and has since reigned as one of America’s most popular working breeds.
Official Standard of the Doberman Pinscher
General Appearance: The appearance is that of a dog of medium size, with a body that is square. Compactly built, muscular and powerful, for great endurance and speed. Elegant in appearance, of proud carriage, reflecting great nobility and temperament. Energetic, watchful, determined, alert, fearless, loyal and obedient.
Size, Proportion, Substance: Height at the withers: Dogs 26 to 28 inches, ideal about 27½ inches; Bitches 24 to 26 inches, ideal about 25½ inches.
The height, measured vertically from the ground to the highest point of the withers, equaling the length measured horizontally from the forechest to the rear projection of the upper thigh. Length of head, neck and legs in proportion to length and depth of body. Head: Long and dry, resembling a blunt wedge in both frontal and profile views. When seen from the front, the head widens gradually toward the base of the ears in a practically unbroken line.
Eyes almond shaped, moderately deep set, with vigorous, energetic expression. Iris, of uniform color, ranging from medium to darkest brown in black dogs; in reds, blues, and fawns the color of the iris blends with that of the markings, the darkest shade being preferable in every case.
Ears normally cropped and carried erect. The upper attachment of the ear, when held erect, is on a level with the top of the skull. (In many countries of Europe ear and tail cropping has been prohibited, check with your local vet authorities for actual regulations.
Top of skull flat, turning with slight stop to bridge of muzzle, with muzzle line extending parallel to top line of skull. Cheeks flat and muscular. Nose solid black on black dogs, dark brown on red ones, dark gray on blue ones, dark tan on fawns.
Lips lying close to jaws. Jaws full and powerful, well filled under the eyes. Teeth strongly developed and white. Lower incisors upright and touching inside of upper incisors a true scissors bite. 42 correctly placed teeth, 22 in the lower, 20 in the upper jaw. Distemper teeth shall not be penalized.
Disqualifying Fault - Overshot more than 3/16 of an inch. Undershot more than ⅛ of an inch. Four or more missing teeth.
Neck, Topline, Body: Neck proudly carried, well muscled and dry. Well arched, with nape of neck widening gradually toward body. Length of neck proportioned to body and head.
Withers pronounced and forming the highest point of the body. Back short, firm, of sufficient width, and muscular at the loins, extending in a straight line from withers to the slightly rounded croup.
Chest broad with forechest well defined. Ribs well sprung from the spine, but flattened in lower end to permit elbow clearance. Brisket reaching deep to the elbow.
Belly well tucked up, extending in a curved line from the brisket. Loins wide and muscled. Hips broad and in proportion to body, breadth of hips being approximately equal to breadth of body at rib cage and shoulders.
Tail docked at approximately second joint, appears to be a continuation of the spine, and is carried only slightly above the horizontal when the dog is alert. (Docking tails has been prohibited in many countries of Europe, check with your local vet authorities for actual regulations)
Forequarters: Shoulder Blade-sloping forward and downward at a 45-degree angle to the ground meets the upper arm at an angle of 90 degrees. Length of shoulder blade and upper arm are equal. Height from elbow to withers approximately equals height from ground to elbow.
Legs seen from front and side, perfectly straight and parallel to each other from elbow to pastern; muscled and sinewy, with heavy bone. In normal pose and when gaiting, the elbows lie close to the brisket. Pasterns firm and almost perpendicular to the ground. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet well arched, compact, and catlike, turning neither in nor out.
Hindquarters: The angulation of the hindquarters balances that of the forequarters. Hip bone falls away from spinal column at an angle of about 30 degrees, producing a slightly rounded, well filled-out croup. Upper shanks at right angles to the hip bones, are long, wide, and well Page 2 of 2 muscled on both sides of thigh, with clearly defined stifles. Upper and lower shanks are of equal length. While the dog is at rest, hock to heel is perpendicular to the ground. Viewed from the rear, the legs are straight, parallel to each other, and wide enough apart to fit in with a properly built body. Dewclaws, if any, are generally removed. Cat feet as on front legs, turning neither in nor out.
Coat: Smooth-haired, short, hard, thick and close lying. Invisible gray undercoat on neck permissible.
Color and Markings: Allowed Colors-Black, red, blue, and fawn (Isabella). Markings-Rust, sharply defined, appearing above each eye and on muzzle, throat and forechest, on all legs and feet, and below tail. White patch on chest, not exceeding ½ square inch, permissible. Disqualifying Fault - Dogs not of an allowed color.
Gait: Free, balanced, and vigorous, with good reach in the forequarters and good driving power in the hindquarters. When trotting, there is strong rear-action drive. Each rear leg moves in line with the foreleg on the same side. Rear and front legs are thrown neither in nor out. Back remains strong and firm. When moving at a fast trot, a properly built dog will single-track.
Temperament: Energetic, watchful, determined, alert, fearless, loyal and obedient. The judge shall dismiss from the ring any shy or vicious Doberman. Shyness-A dog shall be judged fundamentally shy if, refusing to stand for examination, it shrinks away from the judge; if it fears an approach from the rear; if it shies at sudden and unusual noises to a marked degree.
Viciousness-A dog that attacks or attempts to attack either the judge or its handler, is definitely vicious. An aggressive or belligerent attitude towards other dogs shall not be deemed viciousness. Faults: The foregoing description is that of the ideal Doberman Pinscher. Any deviation from the above described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation.
Disqualifications: Overshot more than 3/16 of an inch, undershot more than ⅛ of an inch. Four or more missing teeth. Dogs not of an allowed color.
Solid balck Domermans do not exist. The closest you can get is a melanistic Doberman. The common Melanistic is black with markings so dark they tend to blend in with the coal colour.
Black & rust, aka black and tan, black and brown
Red & rust, aka Red, Brown, Chocolate
Blue & rust (aka Blue, Grey, Silver
Fawn (Isabella) & rust, aka Light brown
Black & rust, aka black and tan, black and brown
Red & rust, aka Red, Brown, Chocolate
NO STANDARD COLOURS
All black (melanistic)
White (aka Cream, Ivory)
A full albino Doberman has no pigmentation at all. In fact, they lack the gene that allows them to produce any pigment. This dog is significantly more white in color than the white (or cream) colored dog mentioned in the previous section. The easiest way to tell if the dog is just a white (partial albino) Doberman or a full albino is with the color of the eyes. Blue eyes mean it is a white or cream dog and pink eyes mean it’s a full albino.
USUAL HEALTH PROBLEMS
The breed is prone to a number of health concerns. Common serious health problems include dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), cervical vertebral instability (CVI) von Willebrand's disease (a bleeding disorder for which genetic testing has been available since 2000) and prostatic disease. Less serious common health concerns include hypothyroidism and hip dysplasia. Canine compulsive disorder is also common. Studies have shown that the Doberman Pinscher suffers from prostatic diseases, (such as bacterial prostatiti, prostatic cysts, prostatic adenocarcinoma, and benign hyperplasia) more than any other breed. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a major cause of death in Dobermanns. This disease affects the breed more than any other. Nearly 40% of DCM diagnoses are for Dobermann Pinschers, followed by German Shepherds at 13% More recent studies based on European dogs, however, has indicated that DCM affected rates are much higher for this population than their American relatives: around 58% of European Dobermanns will develop DCM within their lifetime. Research has shown that the breed is affected by an attenuated wavy fiber type of DCM that affects many other breeds, as well as an additional fatty infiltration-degenerative type that appears to be specific to Dobermann Pinscher and Boxer breeds. This serious disease is likely to be fatal in most Dobermanns affected. Roughly a quarter of Dobermann Pinschers who develop cardiomyopathy die suddenly from seemingly unknown causes, and an additional fifty percent die of congestive heart failure. Among female Dobermanns, the sudden death manifestation of the disease is more common, whereas males tend to develop congestive heart failure. In addition to being more prevalent in Dobermanns, this disease is also more serious in the breed. Following a diagnosis, the average non-Dobermann has an expected survival time of 8 months; for Dobermann Pinschers, however, the expected survival time is less than two months. Although the causes for the disease are largely unknown, there is evidence that it is a familial disease inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Investigation into the genetic causes of canine DCM may lead to therapeutic and breeding practices to limit its impact.